The bariatric surgery, also known as obesity surgery or weight reduction surgery is a surgical procedure to reduce a significant amount of excess body weight. It helps the people suffering from obesity to regain a normal life.
What Are Obesity And BMI?
Obesity is a medical condition in which an individual accumulates excessive weight than they can comfortably manage. The deposition of body weight, predominantly the adipose tissue that it begins to have adverse effects on the health. It is one of the leading preventable cause of mortality, all over the world. Needless to say, it is becoming a serious threat to public health in the 21st century.
The Body Mass Index, or more commonly known as BMI is the most widely used parameter for measuring the obesity. It is obtained by dividing an individual’s weight by the square of the individual’s height. A person is considered obese, in case, his or her BMI exceeds 30.
Why is it vital to treat obesity on time?
Health-Related Conditions Along With Obesity
Obesity itself is not a fatal condition. However, there are several other medical conditions which are closely related to the same. A list of such diseases and conditions are-
High blood pressure
Diabetes Type 2
Cancer of certain organs
Joint problems, especially osteoarthritis
Infertility in both men and women
How Bariatric Surgery Works
Dieting and exercise may work for several individuals, but its effectiveness reduces significantly after pausing or terminating the regime. Bariatric surgery, on the other hand, is extremely effective as it directly works on the cause itself. The bariatric surgery is done by making permanent changes in the digestive tract of an individual. Thus, it remains effective for a significantly long time.
Undergoing a weight reduction surgery, not only helps to shed extra pounds, but it also helps to resolve most of the aforementioned medical conditions.
Principles Of Bariatric Surgery
There are two main principles of performing the bariatric surgery- namely the restriction and malabsorption.
The restriction principle
The first class of bariatric surgery works on the restriction principle. As the name suggests, it restricts the amount of food intake. As soon as the stomach becomes empty, it secretes ghrelin, ‘the hunger hormone’. It encourages the individual to eat to fill the stomach. After filling an adequate portion, the stomach then secretes leptin, ‘the satiety hormone’, which in turn, encourages the individual to stop eating.
By employing the restrictive principle, the stomach is reduced to 15 to 25 percent of its original volume. This can either be done temporality, in case of a lap band procedure or permanent in case of sleeve gastrectomy. It limits the amount of food one consumes. Also, a reduced stomach produces a lesser amount of ghrelin.
Thus, the procedure remains effective for a long period of time and also keep reducing weight in future.
The mal-absorption principle
The partially digested food moves down from the stomach to the small and large intestines for further absorption of nutrients back to the body, before passing out of the body as excreta. The second class of bariatric surgery controls by absorbing much lesser nutrients by the body. To achieve this, the small intestine is either resized or rerouted or both.
The mixed approach
To make the procedure much more effective, often both the above-mentioned principles are sometimes executed simultaneously. For instance, in the procedures, gastric bypass, and duodenal switch, the stomach is reduced and bypassed to achieve both methods. Thus, these particular methods are considered as the most effective ones.
Any weight reduction surgery method is very effective and lasts quite long, usually, a lifetime provided living with caution and following the guidelines.
Introduction Of Laparoscopy In Bariatric Surgery
Bariatric surgery has been performed for a long time, according to the open surgery approach. But recently, the laparoscopic approach has literally transformed the existence of the weight reduction surgery. More and more people are not opting for bariatric surgery, nowadays and that too using a laparoscopic technique for even better results.
Limitations Of The Procedure
Just like any other surgical procedure, it does have certain criterion and conditions as well. In order to qualify for a bariatric surgery, an individual must have a BMI of more than 35. It may be considered for an individual with BMI 30 along with at least one obesity-related condition. Also, after the successful completion of the procedure, one must adhere to the guidelines provided by the doctor to ensure its effectiveness. Going back to sedentary lifestyle may hamper the effects largely.
Statistics of obesity and obesity surgery in India
Obesity in India is no longer a disease, which only wealthy people can afford. In fact, people belonging to several economic strata and age group are becoming a prey for the same. One in every five Indian is either overweight or obese. These facts make, obesity surgery in India, a medical procedure of rather an importance and need.
The Scenario In Bangalore
Like the other major cities in India, in Bangalore too, the statistics on obesity is frightening. People, with increasing body weight and decreasing time to address the same, are nowadays availing obesity treatment such as bariatric surgery.
Disclaimer – The information contained in this website is based on the results which the existing patients have got after treatment. However, results may vary from case to case.